Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by an accumulation of monoclonal B lymphocytes in the hematopoietic organs. Rarely, CLL cells accumulate in a single atypical site. The mechanism underlying this unusual distribution of CLL cells has not been studied previously. We obtained peripheral blood from five patients having early stage CLL with heavy prostate infiltration. These patients' circulating CLL cells bound strongly in vitro to cultured prostate cell lines PC3, LNCaP, and DU145 and to short-term cultures of fresh prostate cells but not to colon, breast, or bladder cells. CLL cells from patients without prostate infiltration did not bind in vitro to any cell line. Peripheral blood CLL cells from one patient with CLL with heavy prostate infiltration were fused with a mouse-human heteromyeloma line to make hybridomas expressing the same monoclonal IgM as the patient's CLL cells. The hybridoma cells bound specifically to prostate cells. IgM secreted by the hybridoma blocked binding of the patient's CLL cells to prostate cells. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the secreted IgM bound specifically to prostate cells. These results indicate that CLL with atypical prostate infiltration can be mediated by specific surface-bound IgM against an antigen expressed specifically by prostate cells and suggest that a similar mechanism might also apply to cases of CLL with atypical infiltration into other organs.