Nonrandom, reciprocal translocations between nonhomologous chromosomes are critical cellular events that lead to malignant transformation. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in these chromosomal rearrangements is essential for understanding the process of carcinogenesis. There has been substantial discussion in the literature over the past 10 years about mechanisms involved in constitutional chromosomal rearrangements, including deletions, duplications, and translocations. Yet our understanding of the mechanisms of chromosomal rearrangements in cancer is still developing. This review presents what is known about the mechanisms involved in selected nonrandom chromosomal translocations in leukemia.