Certain antibodies (Abs) elicited using the cardiac glycoside digoxin (digoxigenin tridigitoxoside) bind preferentially to analogs that differ from digoxin by substitutions on the cardenolide rings, the lactone, or by the presence or absence of attached sugars. Antibody 26-10 binds equally well to digoxin and digitoxin, which differ only by the presence in the former and the absence in the latter of an hydroxyl group at C12. Other antidigoxin Abs, however, can distinguish between these ligands by three orders of magnitude in binding. Inspection of the structure of Fab 26-10 complexed with digoxin shows a gap in complementarity in the region between the digoxin O12 and LCDR3. We proposed that insertions in LCDR3 might result in Abs that bind digitoxin preferentially. We produced libraries of mutants displayed on bacteriophage which were randomized at LCDR3 and contained LCDR3 insertions. Mutants were selected by panning against digoxin and analogs. The mutants bound digitoxin preferentially up to 47-fold greater than digoxin. The mutants that bound well to digitoxin demonstrated a consensus sequence including the substitution of Trp at position L94. Using site-directed mutagenesis, the binding to digitoxin was shown to be maximized by the combination of an insertion and LTrp94 mutation, moving the L 94 side chain closer to digoxin. We also selected mutants that bound preferentially to gitoxin, which, like digitoxin, lacks the 12-hydroxyl, increasing relative binding to gitoxin up to 600-fold compared to the unmutated Ab 26-10.