BACKGROUNDSecondary cultures of human fibroblasts display a finite lifespan ending at senescence. Loss of p53 function by mutation or viral oncogene expression bypasses senescence, allowing cell division to continue for an additional 10-20 doublings. During this time chromosomal aberrations seen in mitotic cells increase while DNA damage and decatenation checkpoint functions in G2 cells decrease.METHODSTo explore this complex interplay between chromosomal instability and checkpoint dysfunction, human fibroblast lines were derived that expressed HPV16E6 oncoprotein or dominant-negative alleles of p53 (A143V and H179Q) with or without the catalytic subunit of telomerase.RESULTSCells with normal p53 function displayed 86-93% G1 arrest after exposure to 1.5 Gy ionizing radiation (IR). Expression of HPV16E6 or p53-H179Q severely attenuated G1 checkpoint function (3-20% arrest) while p53-A143V expression induced intermediate attenuation (55-57% arrest) irrespective of telomerase expression. All cell lines, regardless of telomerase expression or p53 status, exhibited a normal DNA damage G2 checkpoint response following exposure to 1.5 Gy IR prior to the senescence checkpoint. As telomerase-negative cells bypassed senescence, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations increased generally congruent with attenuation of G2 checkpoint function. Telomerase expression allowed cells with defective p53 function to grow >175 doublings without chromosomal aberrations or attenuation of G2 checkpoint function.CONCLUSIONThus, chromosomal instability in cells with defective p53 function appears to depend upon telomere erosion not loss of the DNA damage induced G1 checkpoint.