PCR screening of type I polyketidesynthase genes (PKS) was conducted in genomes of actinomycetes, producers of antibiotics. Some DNA fragments from the Streptomyces globisporus 1912 strain, a producer of a novel angucycline antibiotic landomycin E, were amplified. These fragments shared appreciable homology with type I PKS controlling the biosynthesis of polyene antibiotics (pymaricin and nistatin). The cloned regions were used to inactivate putative type I PKS genes in S. globisporus 1912. Strains with inactivated genes of PKS module do not differ from the original strain in the spectrum of synthesized polyketides. Apparently, these are silent genes, which require specific induction for their expression. The method of PCR screening can be used in a large-scale search for producers of new antibiotics.