The prx gene, which is highly homologous to putative proteinases, has been identified by sequencing in the vicinity of the biosynthetic gene cluster for landomycin E (LaE) biosynthesis (lnd) in Streptomyces globisporus 1912. The S. globisporus Pro6 gene, deficient in prx, produced fivefold less LaE than the parental strain. The expression of prx in S. globisporus Pro6 restored LaE production to wild-type levels, whereas expression of the pathway-specific regulatory gene lndI did not. The introduction of additional copies of prx into the wild-type strain using a pSG5-based plasmid, pKC1139, led to a 2.7-fold increase in LaE production. These results indicate that prx is a novel regulatory gene for LaE biosynthesis.