The cell wall of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor M145 has recently been shown to contain the novel glycopolymer teichulosonic acid. The major building block of this polymer is 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (Kdn), suggesting initial clues about the genetic control of biosynthesis of this cell wall component. Here, through genome mining and gene knockouts, we demonstrate that the sco4879-sco4882 genomic region of S. coelicolor M145 is necessary for biosynthesis of teichulosonic acid. Specifically, mutants carrying individual knockouts of sco4879, sco4880 and sco4881 genes do not produce Kdn-containing glycopolymer and instead accumulate the minor cell wall component poly(diglycosyl 1-phosphate). Our studies provide evidence that this region is at least partly responsible for biosynthesis of Kdn, whereas flanking genes might control the other steps of teichulosonic acid formation.