Arrays promise to advance biology by allowing parallel screening for many different binding partners. Meanwhile, lithographic methods enable combinatorial synthesis of > 50,000 oligonucleotides per cm(2), an advance that has revolutionized the whole field of genomics. A similar development is expected for the field of proteomics, provided that affordable, very high-density peptide arrays are available. However, peptide arrays lag behind oligonucleotide arrays. This review discusses recent developments in the field with an emphasis on methods that lead to very high-density peptide arrays.