It is currently thought that acute GVHD cannot be elicited in the absence of Ag presentation by radiosensitive host hematopoietic-derived APCs after allogeneic BM transplantation. Because clinical data suggest that sex-mismatched H-Y Ags may be important minor histocompatibility Ags for GVH responses, we directly tested their relevance and ability to initiate GVHD when presented by either the hematopoietic- (host or donor) or the nonhematopoietic-derived APCs. H-Y minor Ag incompatibility elicited both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell driven GVHD lethality. Studies with various well-established BM chimera recipients, in contrast to the current views, have reported that in the absence of functional radiosensitive host hematopoietic-derived APCs, H-Y Ag presentation by either the donor hematopoietic-derived or the host nonhematopoietic-derived APCs is sufficient for inducing GVHD. Our data further suggest that infusion of sufficient numbers of alloreactive donor T cells will induce GVHD in the absence of radiosensitive host hematopoietic-derived APCs.