Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infect and productively replicate in macrophages and T lymphocytes. Here, we show that SIV virions derived from macrophages have higher levels of infectivity than those derived from T cells. The lower infectivity of T-cell-derived viruses is influenced by the quantity or type of mannose residues on the virion. Our results demonstrate that the cellular origin of a virus is a major factor in viral infectivity. Cell-type-specific factors in viral infectivity, and organ-specific or disease stage-specific differences in cellular derivation of virions, can be critical in the pathogenesis of HIV and AIDS.