The genetic basis of autosomal recessive mental retardation (ARMR) is extremely heterogeneous, and there is reason to suspect that the number of underlying gene defects may well go beyond 1,000. To date, however, only less than 10 genes have been implicated in non-specific/non-syndromic ARMR (NS-ARMR). As part of an ongoing systematic study aiming to identify further ARMR genes, we investigated a consanguineous family with three patients with NS-ARMR. By linkage analysis and subsequent mutation screening we identified a novel nonsense mutation (c.163C > T [p.Q55X]) in the second exon of the TUSC3 gene. This is the third MR causing defect in TUSC3 to be described and the second independent mutation in this gene in a cohort of more than 200 ARMR families from the Iranian population. This argues for a more prominent role of TUSC3 in the etiology of this genetically heterogeneous disorder as compared to most of the other so far identified ARMR genes.