Polymorphism of MHC class Ia molecules severely constrains vaccine development against intracellular pathogens. Antigen presentation by MHC class Ib molecules, which are generally conserved between different individuals, may circumvent this obstacle. Herein, we use tandem mass spectrometry to identify a Listeria monocytogenes pentapeptide antigen that is presented to T lymphocytes by the H2-M3 MHC class Ib molecule. The peptide contains N-formyl methionine at the N terminus and exclusively hydrophobic amino acids. Mice of the H-2 d, H-2 b,and H-2 k haplotypes respond to this peptide upon infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Identification of antigens presented by MHC class Ib molecules is feasible and may provide opportunities for relatively unrestricted vaccine development.