Autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are an essential component of nitrifying wastewater treatment systems. The molecular tools used in group-specific studies are mostly based on the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, but they have not proved to be fully specific. In this study, the sequence of the FISH probe Nso1225R was used as a reverse primer in order to analyze the AOB composition of several environmental samples by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). For this purpose, samples from several environments, including aerated reactors, water treatment wetlands, and pilot plants, both aerobic and anaerobic, were analyzed. PCR fragments displayed a DGGE pattern consisting of bands melting between 30 and 40% denaturant, and a series of unresolved bands above 45%, mostly corresponding to AOB and beta-non-AOB, respectively. This second set of bands corresponded to environments subjected to severe oxygen restrictions. AOB sequences showed similarity percentages higher than 92% with those of known beta-AOB. Nso1225R, therefore, proved to be a good molecular phylogenetic marker for AOB samples from well-aerated systems, showing a higher specificity than the group-specific primers used previously.