Neonatal exposure to antidepressants produces lasting impairments in male sexual behavior. Although perturbation of the serotonin system during neonatal life has been implicated in the long-term behavioral effects of neonatal antidepressant exposure, dose-response studies were necessary to confirm that inhibition of the serotonin transporter during the neonatal period is sufficient to produce impairments in sexual behavior. Therefore, the present study examined the dose-response effects of neonatal citalopram exposure on sexual behavior. In addition, the effects of exposure on anxiety-related behavior were examined since alterations in this behavioral measure could affect sexual behavior. Male Long-Evans rats were injected subcutaneously with citalopram (CTM) in one of three doses (5, 10 or 20mg/kg/d), or saline (SAL) in a volume of 0.1 ml twice daily (0700 and 1400 h) from PD8 to PD21. The rats were tested as adults (>PD90) for anxiety-like behavior and exploration in the elevated plus maze test and sexual behavior. Neonatal citalopram exposure produced persistent reductions in male sexual behavior characterized by significant dose-dependent reductions in the percentage of male rats displaying mounting as well as dose-dependent reductions in the number of mounts and mount latency. Neonatal citalopram exposure also produced significant dose-dependent linear trends for reductions in intromission and ejaculation behavior. However, neonatal SSRI exposure was not found to produce any effects on exploration or anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze test. The present findings support the hypothesis that inhibition of the serotonin transporter during neonatal life by an SSRI is directly responsible for the long-term effects on male sexual behavior.