Yersinia pestis causes pneumonic plague, a necrotic pneumonia that rapidly progresses to death without early treatment. Antibodies to the protective antigen LcrV are thought to neutralize its essential function in the type III secretion system (TTSS) and by themselves are capable of inducing immunity to plague in mouse models. To develop multivalent LcrV antibodies as a therapeutic treatment option, we screened for monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to LcrV that could prevent its function in the TTSS. Although we were able to identify single and combination MAbs that provided the high-level inhibition of the TTSS, these did not promote phagocytosis in vitro and were only weakly protective in a mouse pneumonic plague model. Only one MAb, BA5, was able to protect mice from pneumonic plague. In vitro, MAb BA5 blocked the TTSS with efficiency equal to or even less than that of other MAbs as single agents or as combinations, but its activity led to increased phagocytic uptake. Polyclonal anti-LcrV was superior to BA5 in promoting phagocytosis and also was more efficient in protecting mice from pneumonic plague. Taken together, the data support a hypothesis whereby the pulmonary clearance of Y. pestis by antibodies requires both the neutralization of the TTSS and the simultaneous stimulation of innate signaling pathways used by phagocytic cells to destroy pathogens.