OBJECTIVESTo differentiate the benign and/or malignant epithelial cells in prostate cancer (PCa) glands of native Japanese (NJ) and Japanese-American (JA) men using biomarkers.METHODSTissue microarrays from radical prostatectomy specimens of cancerous and adjacent benign areas from 25 NJ and 25 JA prostate glands were studied. Image analysis was used to quantify total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and proPSA immunohistochemical staining, as well as the variance of several morphometric features from Feulgen-stained epithelial cell nuclei. Logistic regression analysis was applied to determine whether quantitative nuclear grade (QNG) calculations and PSA immunohistochemical staining could differentiate the two test groups.RESULTSThe QNG model differentiated changes in the benign epithelium of the two Japanese groups with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 84% and accuracy of 82% (P = 0.0001). A second QNG model differentiated changes in the malignant epithelium of the two groups with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 84% and accuracy of 76% (P = 0.0023). Logistic regression models combining proPSA immunohistochemical data and QNG from either benign or malignant tissue components yielded areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 96% and 91% (P <0.0001) for differentiation of the JA and NJ groups, respectively.CONCLUSIONSUnique nuclear morphometric alterations demonstrated by QNG combined with proPSA immunohistologic localization independently predicted for significant differences between NJ and JA men with PCa. These preliminary observations indicate a basis for biologic and molecular alterations in the benign adjacent and malignant epithelium between these two groups.