A solid phase modification method using anionic exchange resin as polymer support was developed for the synthesis of monofunctional gold nanoparticles. Based on a "catch and release" mechanism to control the number of functional groups attached to the nanoparticle surface, bifunctional thiol ligands with a carboxylic acid end group were first immobilized at a controlled density on anionic exchange resin through electrostatic interactions. Gold nanoparticles were then immobilized to the anionic exchange resin by a one-to-one place exchange reaction between resin-bound thiol ligands and butanethiol-protected gold nanoparticles in solution. After cleaving off from the resin under mild conditions, gold nanoparticles with a single carboxyl group attached to the surface were obtained as the major product. Experimental conditions such as the solvents used for ligand loading and solid phase place exchange reaction, and the loading density of the ligands, were found to play a critical role towards the successful synthesis of monofunctional nanoparticles. Overall, the noncovalent bond-based ligand immobilization technique reported here greatly simplified the process of solid phase monofunctionalization of nanoparticles compared to a previously reported covalent bond-based ligand immobilization technique.