Growth of collateral vessels is potentially able to preserve structure and a variable degree of function in subtended tissues in the presence of arterial occlusions. The process of transformation of a small arteriole into much larger conductance artery is called arteriogenesis. Small arterioles that interconnect side branches proximal from the arterial occlusion with distal ones experience increased fluid shear stress because of the increased blood flow velocity attributable to the pressure gradient along the bridging collaterals. This activates the endothelium and leads to monocyte adhesion and infiltration with the subsequent production of growth factors and proteases. Preexistent arterioles are essential. Their presence is genetically determined. Arteriogenesis is not organ- or species-specific; coronary or peripheral collateral vessels develop following the same design principles in mice, rats, rabbits, or dogs. In contrast to angiogenesis, arteriogenesis is not dependent on the presence of hypoxia/ischemia.