Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is an analytical tool used routinely for measuring the hydrodynamic size of nanoparticles and colloids in a liquid environment. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are extraordinary light scatterers at or near their surface plasmon resonance wavelength. In this study, we demonstrate that DLS can be used as a very convenient and powerful tool for gold nanoparticle bioconjugation and biomolecular binding studies. The conjugation process between protein A and gold nanoparticles under different experimental conditions and the quality as well as the stability of the prepared conjugates were monitored and characterized systematically by DLS. Furthermore, the specific interactions between protein A-conjugated gold nanoparticles and a target protein, human IgG, can be detected and monitored in situ by measuring the average particle size change of the assay solution. For the first time, we demonstrate that DLS is able to directly and quantitatively measure the binding stoichiometry between a protein-conjugated GNP probe and a target analyte protein in solution.