A family of p160 coactivators was initially identified based on ligand-dependent interactions with nuclear receptors and thought to function, in part, by recruiting CREB-binding protein/p300 to several classes of transcription factors. One of the p160 factors, p/CIP/AIB1, often amplified and overexpressed in breast cancer, also exhibits particularly strong interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300. In this manuscript, we report that p/CIP, which exhibits regulated transfer from cytoplasm to nucleus, is required for normal somatic growth from embryonic day 13.5 through maturity. Our data suggest that a short stature phenotype of p/CIP gene-deleted mice reflect both altered regulation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene expression in specific tissues and a cell-autonomous defect of response to IGF-1, including ineffective transcriptional activities by several classes of regulated transcription factors under specific conditions. The actions of p/CIP are therefore required for full expression of a subset of genes critical for regulating physiological patterns of somatic growth in mammals.