Sponges harbor highly diverse and dense microbial communities, providing an environment in which bacterial signaling may be important. Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent signaling process that bacteria employ to coordinate and regulate their gene expression. Previous studies have found that bacteria isolated from sponges are able to produce acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs), an important class of QS molecules found in proteobacteria. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a second class of QS molecule, and is considered to be an interspecies signal. However, AI-2 signaling has not been reported in sponge bacterial symbionts. In this study, degenerate primers were designed based on known Vibrio luxS sequences to amplify the luxS genes encoding AI-2 synthases of several Vibrio isolates from marine sponges Mycale laxissima and Ircinia strobilina. All the vibrios isolated from these two sponges had luxS genes and were able to produce signals with AI-2 activity as detected using a biological reporter. A novel group of luxS sequences was found, thus extending the known diversity of luxS genes. One isolate was chosen for further analysis of its luxS gene by expression of the gene in Escherichia coli DH5α and by characterization of the profile of AI-2 activity. This work provides the first information about luxS genes and AI-2 activity in sponge-associated bacterial communities.