Ca(2+)-mediated mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) is the final common pathway of stress-induced cell death in many major pathologies, but its regulation in intact cells is poorly understood. Here we report that the mitochondrial carrier SCaMC-1/SLC25A24 mediates ATP-Mg(2-)/Pi(2-) and/or HADP(2-)/Pi(2-) uptake into the mitochondria after an increase in cytosolic [Ca(2+)]. ATP and ADP contribute to Ca(2+) buffering in the mitochondrial matrix, resulting in desensitization of the mPT. Comprehensive gene expression analysis showed that SCaMC-1 overexpression is a general feature of transformed and cancer cells. Knockdown of the transporter led to vast reduction of mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering capacity and sensitized cells to mPT-mediated necrotic death triggered by oxidative stress and Ca(2+) overload. These findings revealed that SCaMC-1 exerts a negative feedback control between cellular Ca(2+) overload and mPT-dependent cell death, suggesting that the carrier might represent a novel target for cancer therapy.