Although the physiological relevance of mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis is widely accepted, no information is yet available on the molecular identity of the proteins involved in this process. Here we analyzed the role of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) of the outer mitochondrial membrane in the transmission of Ca2+ signals between the ER and mitochondria by measuring cytosolic and organelle [Ca2+] with targeted aequorins and Ca2+-sensitive GFPs. In HeLa cells and skeletal myotubes, the transient expression of VDAC enhanced the amplitude of the agonist-dependent increases in mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ concentration by allowing the fast diffusion of Ca2+ from ER release sites to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Indeed, high speed imaging of mitochondrial and cytosolic [Ca2+] changes showed that the delay between the rises occurring in the two compartments is significantly shorter in VDAC-overexpressing cells. As to the functional consequences, VDAC-overexpressing cells are more susceptible to ceramide-induced cell death, thus confirming that mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake plays a key role in the process of apoptosis. These results reveal a novel function for the widely expressed VDAC channel, identifying it as a molecular component of the routes for Ca2+ transport across the mitochondrial membranes.