Mitochondria provide the primary source of ATP in the oocyte and early embryo and mitochondrial dysfunction and deficit of mitochondria-derived ATP has been linked to suboptimal developmental competence. We have undertaken a study of ATP in the maturing mouse oocyte using a novel recombinant FRET based probe, AT1.03. We show that AT1.03 can be successfully used to monitor cytosolic ATP levels in single live oocytes over extended time periods. We find that ATP levels undergo dynamic changes associated with specific maturational events and that oocytes display altered rates of ATP consumption at different stages of maturation. Cumulus enclosed oocytes have a higher ATP level during maturation than denuded oocytes and this can be abolished by inhibition of gap junctional communication between the oocyte and cumulus cells. Our work uses a new approach to shed light on regulation of ATP levels and ATP consumption during oocyte maturation.