Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects motor neurons and causes progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. The etiology and pathogenesis of ALS are largely unknown and no effective treatment is presently available. About 10% of patients have the familial or inherited form of the disease (fALS), among which 20% is linked to mutations with Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase (mSOD1). Transgenic animals expressing human mSOD1 are excellent models for understanding not only fALS but sporadic ALS as well. Pathological features in both ALS patients and mSOD1 transgenic animals' spinal cords share commonalties including the accumulation of misfolded protein inclusions. Recent proteomic investigations on ALS animal models have discovered alterations in protein expression, protein-protein interactions and post-translational modifications. These efforts have revealed aspects of potential pathogenic mechanisms and identified probable therapeutic targets. The present review summarizes the major findings of proteomics studies performed on the mSOD1 mice with particular emphasis on the spinal cord proteome. These results are compared with those reported using cell cultures or specimens obtained from ALS patients. The convergence of pathogenic processes on protein chaperone function, and its relationship to protein degradation, metabolic dysfunction and oxidative signaling events is discussed.