Nuclear factor 90 (NF90) and its C-terminally extended isoform, NF110, have been isolated as DNA- and RNA-binding proteins together with the less-studied protein NF45. These complexes have been implicated in gene regulation, but little is known about their cellular roles and whether they are redundant or functionally distinct. We show that heterodimeric core complexes, NF90-NF45 and NF110-NF45, exist within larger complexes that are more labile and contain multiple NF90/110 isoforms and additional proteins. Depletion of the NF45 subunit by RNA interference is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the levels of NF90 and NF110. Reciprocally, depletion of NF90 but not of NF110 greatly reduces the level of NF45. Coregulation of NF90 and NF45 is a posttranscriptional phenomenon, resulting from protein destabilization in the absence of partners. Depletion of NF90-NF45 complexes retards cell growth by inhibition of DNA synthesis. Giant multinucleated cells containing nuclei attached by constrictions accumulate when either NF45 or NF90, but not NF110, is depleted. This study identified NF45 as an unstable regulatory subunit of NF90-NF45 complexes and uncovered their critical role in normal cell division. Furthermore, the study revealed that NF90 is functionally distinct from NF110 and is more important for cell growth.