Gap junctions play important roles in auditory function and skin biology; mutations in the Cx26 (connexin26) gene are the predominant cause of inherited non-syndromic deafness and cause disfiguring skin disorders. Mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify PTMs (post-translational modifications) of Cx26 and to determine whether they occur at sites of disease-causing mutations. Cx26 was isolated from transfected HeLa cells by sequential immunoaffinity and metal chelate chromatography using a tandem C-terminal haemagglutinin epitope and a (His-Asn)6 sequence. In-gel and in-solution enzymatic digestions were carried out in parallel with trypsin, chymotrypsin and endoproteinase GluC. Peptides were fractionated using a reversed-phase matrix by stepwise elution with increasing concentrations of organic solvent. To improve detection of low-abundance peptides and to maximize sequence coverage, MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry; MS) and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry; MS/MS) spectra were acquired from each elution step using an Applied Biosystems 4800 tandem mass spectrometer. Acquisition, processing and interpretation parameters were optimized to improve ionization and fragmentation of hydrophobic peptides. MS and MS/MS coverage of Cx26 was significantly above that reported for other membrane proteins 71.3% by MS, with 29.9% by MS/MS. MS coverage was 92.6% if peptides resulting from in-source collisions and/or partial enzymatic cleavages were considered. A variety of putative PTMs of Cx26 were identified, including acetylation, hydroxylation, gamma-carboxyglutamation, methylation and phosphorylation, some of which are at sites of deafness-causing mutations. Knowledge of the PTMs of Cx26 will be instrumental in understanding how alterations in the cellular mechanisms of Cx26 channel biogenesis and function lead to losses in auditory function and disfiguring skin disorders.