Thioaptamers offer advantages over normal phosphate ester backbone aptamers due to their enhanced affinity, specificity, and higher stability, largely due to the properties of the sulfur backbone modifications. Over the past several years, in vitro thioaptamer selection and bead-based thioaptamer selection techniques have been developed in our laboratory. Furthermore, several thioaptamers targeting specific proteins such as transcription factor NF-kappaB and AP-1 proteins have been identified. Selected thioaptamers have been shown diagnostic promise in proteome screens. Moreover, some promising thioaptamers have been shown in preliminary animal therapeutic dosing to increase survival in animal models of infection with West Nile virus.