INTRODUCTIONRG7128 (prodrug of PSI-6130) shows potent antiviral efficacy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1, 2, or 3, with mean viral load decreases of 2.7 and 5 log(10) IU/mL, respectively, associated with 1500-mg doses twice daily after monotherapy for 2 weeks and with 1000-mg and 1500-mg doses twice daily after treatment in combination with the standard of care (SOC) for 4 weeks.RESULTSFrom 32 patients treated with RG7128 monotherapy for 2 weeks, marginal viral load rebound was observed in 3 HCV genotype 1-infected patients, whereas partial response was observed in 2 genotype 1-infected patients. From 85 patients receiving RG7128 in combination with SOC, 1 HCV genotype 1-infected patient experienced a viral rebound, and 2 genotype 3-infected patients experienced a transient rebound. Five genotype 1-infected patients had an HCV load of >1000 IU/mL at the end of 4-week treatment. No viral resistance was observed, per NS5B sequencing and phenotypic studies. PSI-6130 resistance substitution S282T needs to be present at levels of ≥90% within a patient's quasispecies to confer low-level resistance. No evidence of S282T was found by population or clonal sequence analyses.CONCLUSIONSThe requirement for a predominant S282T mutant quasispecies, its low replication capacity, and the low-level resistance it confers probably contribute to the lack of RG7128 resistance observed in HCV-infected patients.