BACKGROUND AND PURPOSEDersalazine sodium (DS) is a new chemical entity formed by combining, through an azo bond, a potent platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist (UR-12715) with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). DS has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats and recently in UC patients in phase II PoC. There is Increasing evidence that Th17 cells have an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to further characterize the anti-inflammatory effects of DS.EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHEffect of DS (10 or 30 mg·kg(-1) b.i.d.) on TNBS-induced colitis in rats was studied after 2 and 7 days with special focus on inflammatory mediators. Additionally, its anti-inflammatory properties were analysed in two different models of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, the latter being dependent on IL-17.KEY RESULTSDS, when administered for 7 days, showed intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in TNBS-induced colitis; these effects were observed both macroscopically and through the profile of inflammatory mediators (TNF, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17). Although the 2 day treatment with DS did not induce intestinal anti-inflammatory effects, it was sufficient to reduce the enhanced IL-17 expression. DS showed beneficial effects on DSS-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice and reduced colonic pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17. In contrast, it did not exert intestinal anti-inflammatory effects on DSS-induced colitis in BALB/c mice.CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSDS exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory activity in different rodent models of colitis through down-regulation of IL-17 expression.