The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, with a total size of 24,673 bp, was one of the smallest known mtDNAs of Pezizomycotina. It contained the 14 typical genes coding for proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, the two rRNA genes, a single intron that harbored an intronic ORF coding for a putative ribosomal protein (rps) within the large rRNA gene (rnl), and a set of 24 tRNA genes which recognized codons for all amino acids, except proline and valine. Gene order comparison with all known mtDNAs of Sordariomycetes illustrated a highly conserved genome organization for all the protein- and rRNA-coding genes, as well as three clusters of tRNA genes. By considering all mitochondrial essential protein-coding genes as one unit a phylogenetic study of these small genomes strongly supported the common evolutionary course of Sordariomycetes (100% bootstrap support) and highlighted the advantages of analyzing small genomes (mtDNA) over single genes. In addition, comparative analysis of three intergenic regions demonstrated sequence variability that can be exploited for intra- and inter-specific identification of Metarhizium.