This study presents a morphometric developmental analysis of bovine kidneys and a demonstration of intrarenal arterial vascularization in the prenatal period. A total of 40 Holstein bovine fetuses constituted the material of the study. The fetuses were divided into three groups, according to the gestational stages they belonged to early, mid- and late stages, such that each group comprised 10 fetuses. Sixty kidneys and their renal arteries were evaluated using morphometric measurements. Furthermore, 10 bovine fetuses were injected with cast solution to demonstrate the intrarenal arteries. Data obtained in the present study were statistically analyzed. Although the right and left kidneys did not significantly differ from each other, significant differences existed between the different gestational stages (P<0.05). The kidney parameters, including length, width and thickness, were positively correlated with both the right and left kidneys as well as with gestational age. Four types of intrarenal arterial segmentation were demonstrated. Type I was observed in 10 kidneys (50%), type II in four kidneys (20%) as well as type III, and type IV in only two kidneys (10%). In the most frequent arterial segmentation type (type I), the renal artery divided into three segmental arteries, which supplied the cranial polar, medial and caudal polar regions of the kidney, after stemming from the abdominal aorta. Furthermore, cases of double and multiple renal arteries were also observed.