PKCδ, a Ser/Thr kinase, promotes cell growth, tumorigenesis, and apoptosis. Human biliverdin reductase (hBVR), a Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase, inhibits apoptosis by reducing biliverdin-IX to antioxidant bilirubin. The enzymes are activated by similar stimuli. Reportedly, hBVR is a kinase-independent activator of PKCδ and is transactivated by the PKC (Gibbs, P. E., Miralem, T., Lerner-Marmarosh, N., Tudor, C., and Maines, M. D. (2012) J. Biol. Chem. 287, 1066-1079). Presently, we examined interactions between the two proteins in the context of regulation of their activities and defining targets of hBVR phosphorylation by PKCδ. LC-MS/MS analysis of PKCδ-activated intact hBVR identified phosphorylated serine positions 21, 33, 230, and 237, corresponding to the hBVR Src homology-2 domain motif (Ser(230) and Ser(237)), flanking the ATP-binding motif (Ser(21)) and in PHPS sequence (Ser(33)) as targets of PKCδ. Ser(21) and Ser(230) were also phosphorylated in hBVR-based peptides. The Ser(230)-containing peptide was a high affinity substrate for PKCδ in vitro and in cells; the relative affinity was PKCδ > PKCβII > PKCζ. Two overlapping peptides spanning this substrate, KRNRYLSF and SFHFKSGSL, were effective inhibitors of PKCδ kinase activity and PKCδ-supported activation of transcription factors Elk1 and NF-κB. Only SFHFKSGSL, in PKCδ-transfected phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated cells, caused membrane blebbing and cell loss. Biliverdin noncovalently inhibited PKCδ, whereas PKCδ potentiated hBVR reductase activity and accelerated the rate of bilirubin formation. This study, together with previous findings, reveals an unexpected regulatory interplay between PKCδ and hBVR in modulating cell death/survival in response to various activating stimuli. In addition, this study has identified novel substrates for and inhibitors of PKCδ. We suggest that hBVR-based technology may have utility to modulate PKCδ-mediated functions in the cell.