MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is frequently upregulated in various types of human cancer; however, its role in cancer angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the role of miR-155 in angiogenesis through targeting von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumour suppressor in breast cancer. Ectopic expression of miR-155 induced whereas knockdown of miR-155 inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell network formation, proliferation, invasion and migration. Furthermore, mammary fat pad xenotransplantation of ectopically expressed miR-155 resulted in extensive angiogenesis, proliferation, tumour necrosis and recruitment of pro-inflammatory cells such as tumour-associated macrophages. Expression of VHL abrogated these miR-155 effects. Moreover, miR-155 expression inversely correlates with VHL expression level and is associated with late-stage, lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis, as well as triple-negative tumour in breast cancer. These findings indicate that miR-155 has a pivotal role in tumour angiogenesis by downregulation of VHL, and provide a basis for miR-155-expressing tumours to embody an aggressive malignant phenotype, and therefore miR-155 is an important therapeutic target in breast cancer.