Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with very low response rate against conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as dacarbazine (DTIC). Inhibitor of Rb-Raf-1 interaction RRD-251 was tested against the melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-28, SK-MEL-5, and SK-MEL-2. RRD-251 was found to be a potent inhibitor of melanoma cell proliferation, irrespective of V600E B-Raf mutation status of the cell lines. In a SK-MEL-28 xenograft experiment, RRD-251 exerted a significant suppression of tumor growth compared with vehicle (P = 0.003). Similar to in vitro effects, tumors from RRD-251-treated animals showed decreased Rb-Raf-1 interaction in vivo. Growth suppressive effects of RRD-251 were associated with induction of apoptosis as well as a G(1) arrest, with an accompanying decrease in S-phase cells. RRD-251 inhibited Rb phosphorylation and downregulated E2F1 protein levels in these cells. Real-time PCR analysis showed that RRD-251 caused downregulation of cell-cycle regulatory genes thymidylate synthase (TS) and cdc6 as well as the antiapoptotic gene Mcl-1. Combinatorial treatment of RRD-251 and DTIC resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis in DTIC resistant cell lines SK-MEL-28 and SK-MEL-5, as revealed by increased caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. Because aberrant Rb/E2F pathway is associated with melanoma progression and resistance to apoptosis, these results suggest that the Rb-Raf-1 inhibitor could be an effective agent for melanoma treatment, either alone or in combination with DTIC.