Autophagy attenuates the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy but its effects on immunotherapy have been little studied. Here, we report that chemotherapy renders tumor cells more susceptible to lysis by CTL in vivo. Moreover, bystander tumor cells that did not express antigen were killed by CTL. This effect was mediated by transient but dramatic upregulation of the mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR) on the tumor cell surface. Antitumor effects of combined treatment related to the kinetics of MPR upregulation and abrogation of this event abolished the combined effect of immunotherapy and chemotherapy. MPR accumulation on the tumor cell surface during chemotherapy was observed in different mouse tumor models and in patients with multiple myeloma. Notably, this effect was the result of redistribution of the receptor caused by chemotherapy-inducible autophagy. Together, our findings reveal one molecular mechanism through which the antitumor effects of conventional cancer chemotherapy and immunotherapy are realized.