Mutations in the BLM gene cause human Bloom syndrome (BS), an autosomal recessive disorder of growth retardation, immunodeficiency and cancer predisposition. Homozygous null Blm(m3/m3) mice are cancer prone with a 5-fold increased risk of cancer compared with Blm(m3/+) and Blm(+/+) mice. Irradiation of Blm(m3/m3) mice increased the risk to 28-fold. Tumors occurred mainly in the hematopoietic system and were similar to those in BS based on detailed histologic and immunohistochemical analyses. Irradiated Blm-deficient mice thus provide a novel model for understanding accelerated malignancies in BS and a new platform for investigating the molecular basis for a wide range of hematopoietic neoplasms.