Inflammation is a defense reaction of an organism against harmful stimuli such as tissue injury or infectious agents. The relationship between the infecting microorganism and the immune, inflammatory, and coagulation responses of the host is intricately intertwined. Due to its complex nature, the molecular mechanisms of inflammation are not yet understood in detail and additional diagnostic tools are required to clarify further aspects. In recent years, protein microarray-based research has moved from being technology-based to application-oriented. Protein microarrays are perfect tools for studying inflammatory diseases. High-density protein arrays enable new classes of autoantibodies, which cause autoimmune diseases, to be discovered. Protein arrays consisting of miniaturized multiplexed sandwich immunoassays allow the simultaneous expression analysis of dozens of signaling molecules such as the cytokines and chemokines involved in the regulation of the immune system. The data enable statements to be made on the status of the disease and its progression as well as support for the clinicians in choosing patient-specific treatment. This chapter reviews the technology and the applications of protein microarrays in diagnosing and monitoring inflammatory diseases.