Fusidic acid resistance expression in a methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strain (WBG1576), which carries fusidic acid resistance on plasmid pUB101, and a prevalent Western Australian methicillin-fusidic acid resistant strain (WBG8287) were compared. WBG8287 carries fusidic acid resistance on the chromosome and its plasmid content has no effect on the levels of this resistance. WBG1576 and WBG8287 exhibited similar heterogeneous populations in respect to fusidic acid resistance levels in population analyses. A high-level fusidic acid resistant mutant of WBG1576 (BE8) had alterations in Smal chromosomal profiles, but not in plasmid size or resistance expression. Mutations causing increased fusidic acid resistance in WBG1576 are chromosomally located. A high-level fusidic acid resistant mutant of WBG8287 (BE3) had no alterations in Smal chromosomal profiles, or plasmid content and resistances. Comparison of resistance levels to kanamycin and spectinomycin, between high-level resistant colonies of WBG8287 and WBG8287, indicate that mutations in the chromosomal gene fusA, which encodes elongation factor-G, are probably the cause of the increased resistance levels observed in these mutant strains.