Myeloid leukemia factor 1 (MLF1) is an oncoprotein associated with hemopoietic lineage commitment and acute myeloid leukemia. Here we show that Mlf1 associated with a novel binding partner, Mlf1-associated nuclear protein (Manp), a new heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family member, related to hnRNP-U. Manp localized exclusively in the nucleus and could redirect Mlf1 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. The nuclear content of Mlf1 was also regulated by 14-3-3 binding to a canonical 14-3-3 binding motif within the N terminus of Mlf1. Significantly Mlf1 contains a functional nuclear export signal and localized primarily to the nuclei of hemopoietic cells. Mlf1 was capable of binding DNA, and microarray analysis revealed that it affected the expression of several genes, including transcription factors. In summary, this study reveals that Mlf1 translocates between nucleus and cytoplasm, associates with a novel hnRNP, and influences gene expression.