Streptococcus mutans, a normal inhabitant of dental plaque, is considered a primary etiological agent of dental caries. Two virulence determinants of S. mutans are its acidogenicity and aciduricity (the ability to produce acid and the ability to survive and grow at low pH, respectively). Citric acid is ubiquitous in nature; it is a component of fruit juices, bones, and teeth. In lactic acid bacteria citrate transport has been linked to increased survival in acidic conditions. We identified putative citrate transport and metabolism genes in S. mutans, which led us to investigate citrate transport and metabolism. Our goals in this study were to determine the mechanisms of citrate transport and metabolism in S. mutans and to examine whether citrate modulates S. mutans aciduricity. Radiolabeled citrate was used during citrate transport to identify citrate metal ion cofactors, and thin-layer chromatography was used to identify metabolic end products of citrate metabolism. S. mutans was grown in medium MM4 with different citrate concentrations and pH values, and the effects on the growth rate and cell survival were monitored. Intracellular citrate inhibited the growth of the bacteria, especially at low pH. The most effective cofactor for citrate uptake by S. mutans was Fe(3+). The metabolic end product of citrate metabolism was aspartate, and a citrate transporter mutant was more citrate tolerant than the parent.