Streptococcus mutans is considered one of the main causative agents of human dental caries. Cell-cell communication through two-component signal transduction systems (TCSTS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of S. mutans. One of the S. mutans TCSTS, ComDE, controls both competence development and biofilm formation. In this study, we showed that addition of exogenous competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) beyond the levels necessary for competence inhibited the growth of S. mutans in a ComDE-dependent manner. We also demonstrated that further increases of CSP stopped S. mutans cell division leading to cell death. Use of CSP as a possible therapeutic agent is discussed.