Deoxygenation elevates glycolytic flux and lowers pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) activity in mammalian erythrocytes. The membrane anion transport protein (band 3 or AE1) is thought to facilitate this process by binding glycolytic enzymes (GEs) and inhibiting their activity in an oxygen-dependent manner. However, this regulatory mechanism has not been demonstrated under physiological conditions. In this study, we introduce a (1)H-(13)C NMR technique for measuring metabolic fluxes in intact cells. The role of band 3 in mediating the oxygenated/deoxygenated metabolic transition was examined by treating cells with pervanadate, a reagent that prevents the GE-band 3 complex from forming. We report that pervanadate suppresses oxygen-dependent changes in glycolytic and PPP fluxes. Moreover, these metabolic alterations were not attributable to modulation of bisphosphoglycerate mutase, direct inhibition of GEs by pervanadate, or oxidation, which are the major side effects of pervanadate treatment. These data provide direct evidence supporting the role of band 3 in mediating oxygen-regulated metabolic transitions.