The mechanisms of neutrophil (PMN) recruitment to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection remain incompletely defined. Mast cells (MC) involvement in this process has not been studied previously. In this study, we demonstrate that human cord blood-derived MC phagocytose P. aeruginosa and release mediators that activate HUVEC monolayers for supporting PMN transmigration. Pretreatment of supernatants from P. aeruginosa-MC cocultures with neutralizing anti-IL-1alpha plus anti-IL-1beta Abs, or IL-1R antagonist before addition to HUVEC for stimulation completely abrogated MC-induced PMN transmigration, while anti-TNF-alpha treatment had no effect. The expression of E-selectin and ICAM-1 on HUVEC, the latter a ligand for PMN CD11/CD18, was significantly up-regulated by P. aeruginosa-induced MC mediators. Pretreatment of human PMN with anti-CD18 mAb or pretreatment of HUVEC with a combination of three mAbs (against ICAM-1, ICAM-2, and E-selectin) inhibited by 85% the MC-dependent PMN transmigration. Moreover, P. aeruginosa-induced production of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta was down-regulated by IL-10 and dexamethasone. This study demonstrates for the first time that MC may mediate P. aeruginosa-induced PMN recruitment via production of IL-1alpha and beta. These findings have important implications for diseases involving P. aeruginosa infection and suggest novel targets for modulating P. aeruginosa-induced inflammation.