The regulation of acid production in and the tolerance to low pH of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans have garnered considerable attention since both of these properties contribute substantially to the virulence of this organism. Frequent or prolonged exposure to acid end products, mainly lactic acid, that are present following the consumption of dietary sugars erodes the dental enamel, thereby initiating dental caries. Here we report the involvement of the S. mutans VicK sensor kinase in both the acidogenicity and the aciduricity of this bacterium. When cultures were supplemented with glucose, the glycolytic rate of a VicK null mutant was significantly decreased compared to the glycolytic rate of the wild type (P < 0.05), suggesting that there was impaired acid production. Not surprisingly, the VicK deletion mutant produced less lactic acid, while an acid tolerance response assay revealed that loss of VicK significantly enhanced the survival of S. mutans (P < 0.05). Compared to the survival rates of the wild type, the survival rates of the VicK-deficient mutant were drastically increased when cultures were grown at pH 3.5 with or without preexposure to a signal pH (pH 5.5). Global transcriptional analysis using DNA microarrays and S. mutans wild-type UA159 and VicK deletion mutant strains grown at neutral and low pH values revealed that loss of VicK significantly affected expression of 89 transcripts more than twofold at pH 5.5 (P < 0.001). The affected transcripts included genes with putative functions in transport and maintenance of cell membrane integrity. While our results provide insight into the acid-inducible regulon of S. mutans, here we imply a novel role for VicK in regulating intracellular pH homeostasis in S. mutans.