Using monoclonal antibodies specific for their protein products, the expression of the Ubx, Antp, and Scr genes was examined in imaginal discs and central nervous systems of esc-Drosophila larvae. In esc-mutants, both the Ubx and Scr proteins are expressed at increased levels or in new locations in the leg discs. Ubx also is expressed in new locations in the posterior wing disc and in small groups of cells in the antenna disc. The Antp protein is expressed ectopically in the eye-antenna disc; however, obvious abnormal expression of Antp was not found in the thoracic imaginal discs. Particularly striking is the fact that a single disc, such as the mesothoracic leg, can show increased expression of both a more "anterior" homeotic gene (Scr) and a more "posterior" gene (Ubx). Ectopic expression of Ubx and Antp, but not of Scr, is seen in the central nervous system of mutant larvae. These results are discussed with respect to the adult esc-phenotype and the differential effects of esc mutations on early and late development.