We have produced over the years several genetically modified mouse models (transgenic [TG], knockout [KO] and knockin [KI]) for the study of normal and aberrant functions of gonadotrophins and their receptors. We summarise in the present review some of our recent findings on these animal models. One is the cascade of extragonadal phenotypes triggered by ovarian hyperstimulation in TG mice overexpressing the human choriongonadotrophin (hCG) beta-subunit and presenting with elevated levels of serum luteinising hormone (LH)/hCG bioactivity. Massively elevated levels of serum progesterone, rather than oestrogens, are responsible for the induction of pituitary prolactinomas and the subsequently elevated prolactin (PRL) levels. Along with normal oestradiol and elevated progesterone levels, the increased concentration of PRL induces lobuloalveolar development of the mammary gland, with ultimate formation of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-negative malignant tumours. Another TG mouse model expressing a constitutively activating mutant form of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) presents with a strong ovarian phenotype inducing advanced follicular development and depletion, haemorrhagic follicles, teratomas and infertility. A third TG mouse model, coexpressing binding- and signalling-deficient mutants of LHCGR in the KO background for the same receptor (R) gene provided convincing evidence that functional complementation through homo-di/oligomerisation is a physiologically relevant mode of activation of class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Taken together, genetically modified mouse models provide powerful tools for the elucidation of normal and pathological functions of gonadotrophins and their R.