The ability of 17 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae isolates, representing serotypes 1, 2, 5, and 7, to adhere to tracheal rings maintained in culture was examined. Porcine tracheal rings were infected, and 8 h after inoculation, adherent bacterial cells were evaluated. A. pleuropneumoniae adhered to tracheal rings, and marked variations were observed between and even within serotypes, suggesting that adherence of this microorganism is not primarily related to the serotype of the isolate. No relationship was found between adherence to porcine tracheal rings and plasmid profiles, virulence in mice, hemagglutination, capsular material thickness, or whole-cell protein profiles. On the other hand, we observed that all isolates of serotypes 1 and 5 had a semirough-type lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas isolates of serotypes 2 and 7 had a smooth-type LPS (75%) or a semirough-type LPS (25%). Results showed that 83% of isolates with a smooth-type LPS adhered in large numbers to tracheal rings, whereas 80% of isolates with a semirough-type LPS adhered poorly (P less than 0.007). Our data indicated that the degree of adherence of A. pleuropneumoniae to porcine tracheal rings appeared to be related, at least in part, to LPS profiles. Furthermore, LPS seemed to be the adhesin of A. pleuropneumoniae, since purified LPS blocked adherence of this microorganism to porcine tracheal rings.