WbpO is associated with B-band lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O6. This protein is thought to catalyze the enzymatic conversion of UDP-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (UDP-GalNAc) to UDP-N-acetyl-d-galactosaminuronic acid (UDP-GalNAcA). WbpO was overexpressed with a C-terminal hexahistidine tag. The soluble form of expressed WbpO (WbpO(Sol)) exhibited a secondary structure with 29.2% alpha-helix and 20.1% beta-strand. However, no enzymatic activity could be detected using either high performance anion exchange chromatography or capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry analysis. An insoluble form of expressed WbpO was purified in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. After refolding, this preparation of WbpO (designated as WbpO(Rf)) exhibited stable secondary structure at pH 7.5 to 8.2, and it was enzymatically active. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that WbpO(Rf) catalyzed the conversion of UDP-GalNAc to UDP-GalNAcA. 26 and 22% of the substrate could be converted to UDP-GalNAcA in the presence of NAD(+) and NADP(+) as the cofactors, respectively. The K(m) values of WbpO(Rf) for UDP-GalNAc, NAD(+), and NADP(+) were 7.79, 0.65, and 0.44 mm, respectively. WbpO(Rf) can also catalyze the conversion of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-GlcNAcA. In conclusion, this is the first report of the overexpression, purification, and biochemical characterization of an NAD(+)/NADP(+)-dependent UDP-GalNAc dehydrogenase. Our results also complete the biosynthetic pathway for GalNAcA that is part of the O-antigen of P. aeruginosa serotype O6 lipopolysaccharide.