Giardia occupies a unique evolutionary position since it is considered to belong to the earliest known lineage to diverge from the eukaryotic line of descent. Although organelles of protein transport are thought to have evolved with the nuclear membrane, G. lamblia is reported to have no Golgi apparatus. Therefore, Frances Gillin, David Reiner and Michael McCaffery have investigated how it exports glycoproteins to the cyst wall during encystation and whether a Golgi might become evident during an active secretory phase. They have found both functional and morphological evidence of a Golgi in Giardia and have shown that trophozoites are capable of sophisticated protein recognition, sorting and trafficking. These studies suggest that membranous organelles of protein transport appeared early in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell.